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Continuing the conversation about zoning reform (26 Responses)

I wrote last week to offer an outline of zoning reforms under consideration by the legislature and I’ve gotten a lot of feedback on the piece.

In summary, the goal of the legislation is to make it easier to produce badly needed housing in areas where it makes sense — near jobs and transit. As to the communities that I represent, the impact of the legislation would be nil in Boston, which is governed by its own authorizing legislation, very limited in Watertown, which already is producing a lot of housing, but more significant in Belmont, which down-zoned itself several decades ago to limit density.

Even in Belmont, the legislation would not be radical. Belmont was built as a street car suburb with considerable density. It already has several areas that are built-up with two and three-deckers. These multi-family housing units would be impossible to build under current zoning, but they are not inconsistent with Belmont’s historical zoning rules. I personally live in one of the denser districts.

Making it easier to build multi-family housing near jobs and transit is the right thing to do environmentally, economically and morally. Multi-family housing uses less heating and cooling energy per occupant than single family housing. And, if built near jobs or transit, dense housing results in lower transportation energy use. It also chews up less wild green habitat.

State-wide business leaders consistently emphasize the need for more reasonably priced housing. By allowing communities to drive-up housing costs by making multi-family housing harder to build, we have created a real drag on our regional prosperity. From a moral perspective, it is just wrong to let communities make it impossible for the market to respond to the demand for reasonably-priced housing — it means that people at the lower end of the income spectrum have to devote a huge share of their income to covering housing costs or just can’t afford housing at all.

Some who responded to my first piece were concerned about a loss of local control. The legislation under consideration would not take away local control, but would give the state and regional planning agencies limited oversight authority over local zoning to assure that housing production is possible. There should be limits on local control. Massachusetts differs from many states in that it is chopped into small municipal units that have plenary control over land use. Many states situate land use control in governmental units that cover much larger territories and serve much larger populations. Rules written from a regional perspective or with some regional oversight can do a better job assuring smart growth.

Perhaps the most potent recurring argument against more multi-family housing is that it would increase the strain on school systems. This argument is most powerful in Belmont which has no commercial base and rapidly rising enrollment. Parents have had to fight repeatedly for property tax overrides to fund the schools.

As a Belmont parent and a former Belmont Selectman, I fully appreciate the financial dilemma the town faces, but from a state legislative perspective, the argument that “Belmont cannot afford more families” is not persuasive. The sad fact is that many of the state’s communities are under much greater financial strain than Belmont and, as the green column in the chart below shows, their residents are paying considerably higher shares of their personal income in property taxes.

Belmont happens to be surrounded by some of the communities that have uniquely low residential property tax burdens — Waltham, Boston and Cambridge. But these communities, especially Boston and Cambridge, are building housing as fast as they can. The legislation would not compel Belmont to become dense like Boston or Cambridge, but would just require Belmont to accommodate a little more housing.

For more details on the legislation and for additional resources, please view the previous piece. I welcome additional feedback!

Please see next piece in series to comment.

Thanks to all who have commented here — I’ve read all the comments and appreciate them (in their diversity). The conversation can continue here.

Residential Tax Burden Comparisons

Compiled from reports within the state's Municipal Databank. Population and income data are from 2013 and equalized valuation from 2014 -- see this table. Property Tax Levy and residential share are for FY2015 -- see this table..

Please note -- the sorting feature of this table sorts the columns as if they were letters, so that for example, 100 comes before 9 -- so use caution when sorting by numbers.
NAMEPopulationAggregate IncomeAggregate PropertyPer Capita IncomePer Capita PopertyResidential/Open Space ShareTotal Tax LevyRes/Open Tax as % of IncomePCI -- % diff from avgPCP -- % diff from avgGateway or Core (if both, shown as Gateway)
Abington 16,124 516,549,000 1,759,005,600 32,036 109,092 85.75 29,339,729 4.87%-15%-25%
Acton 22,891 1,315,982,000 3,865,006,000 57,489 168,844 88.29 74,404,617 4.99%53%16%
Acushnet 10,350 287,587,000 1,040,797,100 27,786 100,560 89.19 14,960,375 4.64%-26%-31%
Adams 8,332 169,793,000 483,765,400 20,378 58,061 79.89 10,378,451 4.88%-46%-60%
Agawam 28,705 771,471,000 2,944,629,200 26,876 102,582 60.20 53,764,769 4.20%-29%-30%
Alford491 38,535,000 281,265,800 78,483 572,843 97.82 1,165,472 2.96%108%292%
Amesbury 16,650 548,616,000 1,849,252,600 32,950 111,066 83.97 37,877,461 5.80%-13%-24%
Amherst 38,919 663,320,000 2,220,991,600 17,044 57,067 89.78 44,993,435 6.09%-55%-61%
Andover 34,477 2,447,461,000 7,120,772,800 70,988 206,537 71.05 122,233,763 3.55%89%41%
Aquinnah322 5,718,000 786,395,800 17,758 2,442,223 97.36 3,595,347 61.22%-53%1573%
Arlington 44,028 2,304,468,000 7,913,085,100 52,341 179,728 94.18 105,285,021 4.30%39%23%C
Ashburnham 6,155 187,496,000 585,465,100 30,462 95,120 95.08 12,564,260 6.37%-19%-35%
Ashby 3,161 88,954,000 288,268,400 28,141 91,195 93.13 5,262,057 5.51%-25%-38%
Ashfield 1,733 45,465,000 230,930,200 26,235 133,255 91.04 3,577,850 7.16%-30%-9%
Ashland 17,150 761,361,000 2,267,885,700 44,394 132,238 90.92 38,480,628 4.60%18%-9%
Athol 11,619 209,670,000 635,006,300 18,045 54,652 85.09 11,842,035 4.81%-52%-63%
Attleboro 43,886 1,238,666,000 3,884,331,000 28,225 88,510 74.64 62,585,142 3.77%-25%-39%G
Auburn 16,315 504,025,000 1,944,459,700 30,893 119,182 64.32 35,748,300 4.56%-18%-18%
Avon 4,454 131,491,000 770,032,900 29,522 172,886 36.16 18,188,543 5.00%-22%18%
Ayer 7,821 230,071,000 1,012,014,600 29,417 129,397 45.70 20,572,762 4.09%-22%-11%
Barnstable 44,641 1,492,914,000 13,476,184,100 33,443 301,879 88.22 106,676,485 6.30%-11%107%G
Barre 5,446 126,515,000 406,699,000 23,231 74,678 85.39 7,196,137 4.86%-38%-49%
Becket 1,779 41,521,000 516,080,100 23,340 290,096 90.36 5,228,376 11.38%-38%99%
Bedford 13,975 805,132,000 3,037,581,300 57,612 217,358 62.62 57,953,854 4.51%53%49%
Belchertown 14,735 455,829,000 1,401,621,900 30,935 95,122 92.35 24,091,761 4.88%-18%-35%
Bellingham 16,675 533,677,000 2,163,943,500 32,005 129,772 63.35 34,096,102 4.05%-15%-11%
Belmont 25,332 1,857,450,000 5,760,631,800 73,324 227,405 94.36 76,467,837 3.88%95%56%C
Berkley 6,516 220,213,000 755,363,800 33,796 115,924 94.42 10,247,658 4.39%-10%-21%
Berlin 2,942 137,395,000 533,595,700 46,701 181,372 64.45 9,407,360 4.41%24%24%
Bernardston 2,123 55,041,000 221,233,900 25,926 104,208 84.43 3,999,568 6.14%-31%-29%
Beverly 40,664 1,570,944,000 5,684,015,700 38,632 139,780 76.67 88,167,852 4.30%3%-4%
Billerica 41,888 1,382,527,000 5,566,356,800 33,005 132,887 56.52 104,254,492 4.26%-12%-9%
Blackstone 9,079 251,191,000 843,990,300 27,667 92,961 79.20 15,875,275 5.01%-27%-36%
Blandford 1,246 35,238,000 172,518,200 28,281 138,458 82.56 2,560,407 6.00%-25%-5%
Bolton 5,075 330,212,000 933,040,100 65,066 183,850 92.14 18,856,855 5.26%73%26%
Boston 645,966 25,546,202,000 110,810,609,300 39,547 171,542 39.32 1,867,767,429 2.88%5%17%C
Bourne 19,733 609,623,000 4,220,554,100 30,894 213,883 87.56 41,241,906 5.92%-18%46%
Boxborough 5,137 287,937,000 998,009,700 56,052 194,279 75.67 16,267,038 4.27%49%33%
Boxford 8,163 692,008,000 1,613,407,100 84,774 197,649 96.72 25,988,519 3.63%125%35%
Boylston 4,431 221,074,000 625,053,300 49,893 141,064 90.74 10,451,143 4.29%32%-3%
Braintree 36,727 1,358,152,000 5,574,551,500 36,980 151,783 60.34 79,857,630 3.55%-2%4%
Brewster 9,754 288,703,000 3,545,641,200 29,598 363,506 94.11 27,916,691 9.10%-21%149%
Bridgewater 26,506 769,573,000 2,412,842,700 29,034 91,030 85.87 38,472,471 4.29%-23%-38%
Brimfield 3,708 119,158,000 395,322,100 32,135 106,613 87.01 6,592,742 4.81%-15%-27%
Brockton 94,089 1,758,945,000 5,739,735,500 18,694 61,003 64.60 118,651,483 4.36%-50%-58%G
Brookfield 3,381 83,534,000 255,456,800 24,707 75,557 92.69 4,747,333 5.27%-34%-48%
Brookline 59,128 4,040,498,000 17,051,417,000 68,335 288,381 82.56 182,239,292 3.72%81%98%C
Buckland 1,889 37,235,454 213,003,400 19,712 112,760 80.94 3,497,347 7.60%-48%-23%
Burlington 25,463 1,021,083,000 5,185,943,200 40,101 203,666 39.39 95,618,308 3.69%6%39%
Cambridge 107,289 5,555,551,000 29,733,817,500 51,781 277,138 34.57 341,445,455 2.12%38%90%C
Canton 22,221 1,148,644,000 4,083,657,900 51,692 183,775 62.49 64,629,621 3.52%37%26%
Carlisle 5,028 539,037,000 1,241,047,500 107,207 246,827 98.08 23,965,425 4.36%185%69%
Carver 11,494 318,440,000 1,134,092,700 27,705 98,668 74.56 20,949,403 4.90%-26%-32%
Charlemont 1,251 26,227,000 130,454,200 20,965 104,280 86.25 2,252,575 7.41%-44%-29%
Charlton 13,175 427,100,000 1,413,260,000 32,417 107,268 86.70 18,537,631 3.76%-14%-27%
Chatham 6,131 270,083,000 6,196,588,000 44,052 1,010,698 93.15 29,687,491 10.24%17%592%
Chelmsford 34,722 1,503,838,000 4,733,578,400 43,311 136,328 80.64 87,000,514 4.67%15%-7%
Chelsea 37,670 588,057,000 2,234,376,700 15,611 59,314 46.70 45,856,972 3.64%-59%-59%G
Cheshire 3,192 82,551,000 297,594,300 25,862 93,231 90.74 3,528,760 3.88%-31%-36%
Chester 1,360 28,752,000 122,891,100 21,141 90,361 91.85 2,274,366 7.27%-44%-38%
Chesterfield 1,239 23,596,000 151,017,800 19,044 121,887 95.02 2,674,617 10.77%-49%-17%
Chicopee 55,717 1,038,808,000 3,824,974,200 18,644 68,650 62.04 77,499,108 4.63%-50%-53%G
Chilmark913 42,905,000 3,238,385,900 46,993 3,546,973 97.75 8,191,124 18.66%25%2329%
Clarksburg 1,679 33,243,000 124,331,300 19,799 74,051 96.18 1,704,701 4.93%-47%-49%
Clinton 13,697 373,971,000 1,076,951,500 27,303 78,627 74.26 20,605,127 4.09%-27%-46%
Cohasset 8,273 739,699,000 2,622,371,300 89,411 316,979 92.73 33,217,548 4.16%137%117%
Colrain 1,661 42,489,000 169,419,700 25,580 101,999 84.39 2,997,221 5.95%-32%-30%
Concord 19,285 2,154,897,000 5,540,602,300 111,740 287,301 91.01 77,341,746 3.27%197%97%
Conway 1,902 64,731,000 251,195,300 34,033 132,069 90.70 3,976,476 5.57%-10%-10%
Cummington867 25,366,000 129,127,900 29,257 148,936 88.23 1,684,347 5.86%-22%2%
Dalton 6,725 190,336,000 597,077,300 28,303 88,785 84.21 11,489,078 5.08%-25%-39%
Danvers 27,483 1,041,999,000 4,163,499,300 37,914 151,494 66.48 67,349,955 4.30%1%4%
Dartmouth 34,557 1,045,294,000 4,985,767,900 30,248 144,277 76.27 53,527,195 3.91%-20%-1%
Dedham 25,299 1,145,623,000 4,205,403,500 45,283 166,228 65.85 80,271,086 4.61%20%14%
Deerfield 5,089 201,622,000 680,644,100 39,619 133,748 75.34 9,867,009 3.69%5%-8%
Dennis 14,067 425,230,000 6,250,958,500 30,229 444,370 92.18 38,943,076 8.44%-20%204%
Dighton 7,214 218,405,000 838,835,300 30,275 116,279 76.49 13,941,980 4.88%-20%-20%
Douglas 8,624 281,734,000 902,244,800 32,669 104,620 93.17 14,432,492 4.77%-13%-28%
Dover 5,797 1,217,611,000 2,310,390,900 210,042 398,549 97.62 29,438,146 2.36%458%173%
Dracut 30,687 927,556,000 2,920,269,000 30,226 95,163 90.16 43,367,844 4.22%-20%-35%
Dudley 11,516 292,247,000 885,262,100 25,377 76,872 92.10 10,436,792 3.29%-33%-47%
Dunstable 3,346 291,036,000 467,427,400 86,980 139,697 96.77 7,680,318 2.55%131%-4%
Duxbury 15,288 1,156,244,000 3,475,390,900 75,631 227,328 96.01 54,700,163 4.54%101%56%
East Bridgewater 14,090 417,230,000 1,506,014,000 29,612 106,885 88.50 26,696,390 5.66%-21%-27%
East Brookfield 2,183 62,051,000 207,396,100 28,425 95,005 90.02 3,429,038 4.97%-25%-35%
East Longmeadow 16,022 598,240,000 1,829,457,200 37,339 114,184 81.72 37,393,152 5.11%-1%-22%
Eastham 4,932 143,336,000 2,823,221,800 29,062 572,429 96.03 18,871,760 12.64%-23%292%
Easthampton 15,971 423,449,000 1,482,339,500 26,514 92,814 86.62 21,656,766 4.43%-30%-36%
Easton 23,753 1,021,710,000 3,008,417,200 43,014 126,654 85.93 48,941,862 4.12%14%-13%
Edgartown 4,278 184,992,000 6,954,386,400 43,243 1,625,616 93.03 24,387,828 12.26%15%1013%
Egremont 1,224 26,956,000 409,767,000 22,023 334,777 94.45 3,382,435 11.85%-42%129%
Erving 1,796 31,708,000 659,098,000 17,655 366,981 12.15 8,647,117 3.31%-53%151%
Essex 3,606 190,619,000 766,992,800 52,862 212,699 89.20 11,527,905 5.39%40%46%
Everett 42,935 796,105,000 3,794,616,400 18,542 88,380 37.82 90,369,956 4.29%-51%-39%G
Fairhaven 16,065 416,972,000 1,947,395,200 25,955 121,220 73.79 25,819,277 4.57%-31%-17%
Fall River 88,697 1,367,105,000 5,362,788,000 15,413 60,462 59.95 86,391,491 3.79%-59%-59%G
Falmouth 31,644 1,057,802,000 11,548,755,700 33,428 364,959 92.05 90,462,626 7.87%-11%150%
Fitchburg 40,383 698,899,000 2,197,098,300 17,307 54,407 72.96 45,960,210 4.80%-54%-63%G
Florida744 11,536,000 121,646,500 15,505 163,503 24.17 2,255,297 4.73%-59%12%
Foxborough 17,257 774,217,000 2,702,432,200 44,864 156,599 72.80 41,362,437 3.89%19%7%
Framingham 70,441 2,170,382,000 7,611,237,700 30,811 108,051 59.76 173,512,298 4.78%-18%-26%
Franklin 32,581 1,397,092,000 4,528,882,700 42,881 139,004 80.14 65,786,969 3.77%14%-5%
Freetown 9,035 281,485,000 1,182,600,100 31,155 130,891 73.00 16,864,516 4.37%-17%-10%
Gardner 20,354 383,635,000 1,196,381,700 18,848 58,779 79.24 22,611,100 4.67%-50%-60%
Georgetown 8,468 365,211,000 1,172,756,500 43,128 138,493 90.94 18,203,732 4.53%15%-5%
Gill 1,491 33,967,000 147,440,600 22,781 98,887 77.83 2,415,499 5.53%-40%-32%
Gloucester 29,393 957,945,000 5,495,341,100 32,591 186,961 88.36 73,269,250 6.76%-13%28%
Goshen 1,058 13,385,000 145,887,900 12,651 137,890 94.13 2,100,202 14.77%-66%-6%
Gosnold76 1,591,000 231,698,500 20,934 3,048,664 NULL 580,801 Not computed-44%1988%
Grafton 18,155 784,898,000 2,278,097,900 43,233 125,480 90.72 35,492,115 4.10%15%-14%
Granby 6,290 184,416,000 582,129,300 29,319 92,548 91.67 10,413,921 5.18%-22%-37%
Granville 1,612 47,195,000 206,163,900 29,277 127,893 83.08 2,422,628 4.26%-22%-12%
Great Barrington 6,996 248,336,000 1,353,030,900 35,497 193,401 78.71 18,803,248 5.96%-6%32%
Greenfield 17,492 352,215,000 1,361,745,600 20,136 77,850 74.33 29,715,846 6.27%-47%-47%
Groton 11,115 655,005,000 1,533,032,100 58,930 137,925 93.72 27,971,460 4.00%56%-6%
Groveland 7,019 239,217,000 800,826,600 34,081 114,094 91.84 12,271,969 4.71%-9%-22%
Hadley 5,271 148,751,000 980,443,400 28,221 186,007 65.56 10,077,061 4.44%-25%27%
Halifax 7,606 229,301,000 791,420,800 30,147 104,052 89.36 14,482,776 5.64%-20%-29%
Hamilton 8,131 504,403,000 1,312,968,700 62,035 161,477 95.01 23,336,338 4.40%65%11%
Hampden 5,179 203,002,000 566,450,600 39,197 109,375 91.77 10,418,180 4.71%4%-25%
Hancock717 6,644,000 309,222,500 9,266 431,273 59.98 835,062 7.54%-75%195%
Hanover 14,280 653,688,000 2,383,514,700 45,776 166,913 81.94 38,674,362 4.85%22%14%
Hanson 10,324 322,529,000 1,153,100,300 31,241 111,691 91.49 17,591,439 4.99%-17%-24%
Hardwick 2,997 48,324,000 226,221,100 16,124 75,483 90.85 3,471,406 6.53%-57%-48%
Harvard 6,569 396,410,000 1,122,008,200 60,346 170,804 95.03 18,912,431 4.53%60%17%
Harwich 12,202 396,653,000 4,818,012,600 32,507 394,854 92.81 42,160,022 9.86%-14%170%
Hatfield 3,282 103,954,000 523,102,800 31,674 159,385 74.97 6,630,073 4.78%-16%9%
Haverhill 62,088 1,593,289,000 5,239,268,400 25,662 84,385 75.07 91,114,097 4.29%-32%-42%G
Hawley335 4,537,000 48,930,700 13,543 146,062 89.91 804,993 15.95%-64%0%
Heath703 8,270,000 87,647,700 11,764 124,677 88.64 1,772,751 19.00%-69%-15%
Hingham 22,740 2,146,071,000 5,981,636,700 94,374 263,045 87.23 74,170,568 3.01%151%80%
Hinsdale 1,994 54,036,000 305,189,000 27,099 153,054 83.09 3,556,546 5.47%-28%5%
Holbrook 10,952 296,955,000 1,052,735,700 27,114 96,123 75.08 22,519,871 5.69%-28%-34%
Holden 17,995 705,452,000 1,988,050,400 39,203 110,478 93.55 34,122,107 4.52%4%-24%
Holland 2,495 67,146,000 315,079,700 26,912 126,284 95.20 4,935,192 7.00%-29%-14%
Holliston 14,162 708,004,000 2,097,528,000 49,993 148,110 87.54 40,577,506 5.02%33%1%
Holyoke 40,249 607,730,000 2,109,043,500 15,099 52,400 54.45 51,229,561 4.59%-60%-64%G
Hopedale 5,954 217,209,000 643,281,000 36,481 108,042 82.03 11,540,326 4.36%-3%-26%
Hopkinton 15,918 1,159,989,000 3,094,928,200 72,873 194,429 83.15 53,921,278 3.87%94%33%
Hubbardston 4,464 144,316,000 427,290,600 32,329 95,719 93.86 6,123,543 3.98%-14%-34%
Hudson 19,586 659,033,000 2,227,815,100 33,648 113,745 69.44 44,458,470 4.68%-11%-22%
Hull 10,332 347,083,000 1,905,813,500 33,593 184,457 95.48 25,981,285 7.15%-11%26%
Huntington 2,168 62,103,000 200,117,700 28,645 92,305 93.69 3,284,703 4.96%-24%-37%
Ipswich 13,574 655,915,000 2,491,919,100 48,321 183,580 88.80 33,395,622 4.52%28%26%
Kingston 12,819 447,232,000 1,722,383,000 34,888 134,362 86.67 28,035,558 5.43%-7%-8%
Lakeville 11,144 397,990,000 1,472,871,200 35,713 132,167 85.91 20,100,465 4.34%-5%-9%
Lancaster 8,054 248,356,000 848,120,900 30,836 105,304 85.35 15,542,905 5.34%-18%-28%
Lanesborough 3,037 71,309,000 419,083,500 23,480 137,993 78.46 7,644,979 8.41%-38%-5%
Lawrence 77,657 1,015,970,000 3,103,026,400 13,083 39,958 62.02 59,082,877 3.61%-65%-73%G
Lee 5,921 157,514,000 911,530,300 26,603 153,949 69.69 12,802,092 5.66%-29%5%
Leicester 11,243 299,723,000 900,217,100 26,659 80,069 88.82 12,914,134 3.83%-29%-45%
Lenox 4,983 190,989,000 1,205,548,200 38,328 241,932 77.12 14,275,612 5.76%2%66%
Leominster 41,002 1,053,467,000 3,260,316,100 25,693 79,516 78.32 60,006,303 4.46%-32%-46%G
Leverett 1,861 65,760,000 273,713,900 35,336 147,079 96.40 4,972,064 7.29%-6%1%
Lexington 32,650 3,256,907,000 9,270,431,600 99,752 283,934 78.27 155,635,871 3.74%165%94%
Leyden721 27,223,000 85,506,200 37,757 118,594 94.94 1,441,160 5.03%0%-19%
Lincoln 6,565 939,234,000 1,904,656,000 143,067 290,123 95.40 26,641,111 2.71%280%99%
Littleton 9,246 416,651,000 1,526,463,100 45,063 165,094 70.37 30,427,049 5.14%20%13%
Longmeadow 15,882 1,039,560,000 2,039,169,100 65,455 128,395 94.08 46,504,600 4.21%74%-12%
Lowell 108,861 2,053,007,000 6,552,635,400 18,859 60,193 68.37 117,457,261 3.91%-50%-59%G
Ludlow 21,451 541,567,000 1,947,906,200 25,247 90,807 79.47 33,257,548 4.88%-33%-38%
Lunenburg 10,969 368,099,000 1,183,701,600 33,558 107,913 89.65 21,003,908 5.12%-11%-26%
Lynn 91,589 1,683,626,000 5,644,501,400 18,382 61,629 74.65 112,013,214 4.97%-51%-58%G
Lynnfield 12,395 782,472,000 2,496,773,700 63,128 201,434 85.13 38,945,437 4.24%68%38%
Malden 60,509 1,370,465,000 5,218,790,200 22,649 86,248 76.98 75,885,270 4.26%-40%-41%G
Manchester By The Sea 5,249 587,469,000 2,276,185,500 111,920 433,642 93.07 23,613,808 3.74%197%197%
Mansfield 23,566 1,003,919,000 3,215,394,000 42,600 136,442 70.84 53,181,309 3.75%13%-7%
Marblehead 20,187 1,543,681,000 5,323,866,200 76,469 263,727 94.78 59,015,212 3.62%103%81%
Marion 4,919 247,311,000 1,616,615,400 50,277 328,647 92.50 16,474,580 6.16%34%125%
Marlborough 39,414 1,228,761,000 4,660,560,800 31,176 118,246 54.02 88,678,940 3.90%-17%-19%
Marshfield 25,509 1,059,401,000 4,400,432,600 41,530 172,505 92.09 57,397,789 4.99%10%18%
Mashpee 14,068 440,717,000 4,718,738,000 31,328 335,424 91.64 41,708,168 8.67%-17%130%
Mattapoisett 6,172 300,431,000 1,619,730,500 48,676 262,432 93.74 20,195,420 6.30%29%80%
Maynard 10,370 369,555,000 1,184,661,500 35,637 114,239 83.82 27,435,788 6.22%-5%-22%
Medfield 12,313 996,969,000 2,399,518,500 80,969 194,877 94.52 38,320,353 3.63%115%33%
Medford 57,170 1,878,180,000 7,325,080,700 32,853 128,128 79.27 96,446,667 4.07%-13%-12%C
Medway 13,053 582,376,000 1,725,563,100 44,616 132,197 84.78 31,550,693 4.59%18%-9%
Melrose 27,690 1,164,530,000 3,876,434,900 42,056 139,994 91.58 51,495,943 4.05%12%-4%C
Mendon 5,904 280,488,000 808,861,300 47,508 137,002 88.37 12,884,084 4.06%26%-6%
Merrimac 6,612 211,696,000 700,874,100 32,017 106,000 94.99 10,979,017 4.93%-15%-27%
Methuen 48,514 1,314,207,000 4,606,562,400 27,089 94,953 75.34 75,579,557 4.33%-28%-35%G
Middleborough 23,601 621,939,000 2,313,872,400 26,352 98,041 79.41 35,779,199 4.57%-30%-33%
Middlefield528 9,057,000 66,509,900 17,153 125,966 91.62 1,142,062 11.55%-54%-14%
Middleton 9,419 403,668,000 1,718,243,000 42,857 182,423 83.17 23,448,699 4.83%14%25%
Milford 28,288 864,876,000 2,908,293,100 30,574 102,810 66.26 58,739,318 4.50%-19%-30%
Millbury 13,399 392,303,000 1,367,184,400 29,279 102,036 77.48 22,337,009 4.41%-22%-30%
Millis 8,047 304,170,000 1,042,625,800 37,799 129,567 89.79 17,841,743 5.27%0%-11%
Millville 3,210 91,361,000 252,391,100 28,461 78,627 92.62 4,349,491 4.41%-24%-46%
Milton 27,270 1,711,325,000 4,586,795,600 62,755 168,199 93.88 68,134,681 3.74%67%15%C
Monroe121 806,000 22,644,600 6,661 187,145 24.20 494,174 14.84%-82%28%
Monson 8,722 228,584,000 765,209,100 26,208 87,733 90.89 12,123,031 4.82%-30%-40%
Montague 8,377 173,396,000 783,599,400 20,699 93,542 60.53 14,823,986 5.18%-45%-36%
Monterey957 24,308,000 473,570,600 25,400 494,849 96.17 2,974,325 11.77%-33%239%
Montgomery862 34,142,000 107,539,100 39,608 124,755 95.86 1,525,906 4.28%5%-15%
Mount Washington166 3,194,000 84,548,400 19,241 509,328 97.05 482,972 14.68%-49%249%
Nahant 3,446 209,432,000 776,257,000 60,775 225,263 95.61 8,285,176 3.78%61%54%
Nantucket 10,399 536,369,000 17,816,255,100 51,579 1,713,266 88.24 66,329,953 10.91%37%1073%
Natick 35,214 1,752,670,000 6,961,523,100 49,772 197,692 77.39 96,530,612 4.26%32%35%
Needham 29,736 2,777,187,000 8,293,426,000 93,395 278,902 75.98 113,303,760 3.10%148%91%C
New Ashford226 4,667,000 40,193,100 20,650 177,846 75.46 346,561 5.60%-45%22%
New Bedford 95,078 1,465,185,000 5,366,953,500 15,410 56,448 64.40 101,596,110 4.47%-59%-61%G
New Braintree 1,024 37,205,000 112,371,800 36,333 109,738 94.24 1,798,329 4.55%-4%-25%
New Marlborough 1,497 33,134,000 511,887,900 22,134 341,942 94.42 4,501,447 12.83%-41%134%
New Salem 1,002 24,050,000 109,671,100 24,002 109,452 91.11 1,808,194 6.85%-36%-25%
Newbury 6,853 372,715,000 1,282,606,400 54,387 187,160 95.57 14,450,335 3.71%44%28%
Newburyport 17,800 907,155,000 3,515,476,700 50,964 197,499 86.61 48,131,629 4.60%35%35%
Newton 87,971 9,221,227,000 22,317,332,900 104,821 253,690 79.53 291,889,879 2.52%178%74%C
Norfolk 11,689 531,508,000 1,506,629,600 45,471 128,893 93.21 27,160,170 4.76%21%-12%
North Adams 13,533 204,490,000 735,349,400 15,110 54,338 61.27 15,003,929 4.50%-60%-63%
North Andover 29,217 1,493,909,000 4,337,534,000 51,131 148,459 82.88 65,031,997 3.61%36%2%
North Attleborough 28,801 1,043,031,000 3,505,492,000 36,215 121,714 80.61 45,817,994 3.54%-4%-17%
North Brookfield 4,755 115,316,000 388,948,300 24,252 81,798 91.46 5,955,246 4.72%-36%-44%
North Reading 15,377 774,844,000 2,680,139,500 50,390 174,295 87.28 44,382,165 5.00%34%19%
Northampton 28,495 859,763,000 3,351,978,800 30,172 117,634 79.50 51,492,896 4.76%-20%-19%
Northborough 14,762 715,516,000 2,670,546,700 48,470 180,907 74.01 42,977,124 4.45%29%24%
Northbridge 16,103 485,253,000 1,475,839,800 30,134 91,650 86.77 19,063,082 3.41%-20%-37%
Northfield 3,023 84,935,000 416,996,200 28,096 137,941 67.43 6,807,315 5.40%-25%-6%
Norton 19,367 616,215,000 2,041,345,000 31,818 105,403 85.05 31,238,489 4.31%-16%-28%
Norwell 10,723 847,577,000 2,356,322,900 79,043 219,745 84.31 38,751,449 3.85%110%51%
Norwood 28,951 1,073,611,000 4,423,209,600 37,084 152,783 54.42 64,940,591 3.29%-2%5%
Oak Bluffs 4,685 90,941,000 2,643,282,300 19,411 564,201 92.70 20,300,431 20.69%-48%286%
Oakham 1,912 57,189,000 200,330,800 29,911 104,776 92.76 2,607,366 4.23%-21%-28%
Orange 7,756 130,684,000 502,261,700 16,849 64,758 79.14 9,875,707 5.98%-55%-56%
Orleans 5,868 245,820,000 3,849,037,500 41,892 655,937 92.11 23,207,261 8.70%11%349%
Otis 1,595 46,011,000 656,047,100 28,847 411,315 93.12 4,607,261 9.32%-23%182%
Oxford 13,806 362,044,000 1,288,985,500 26,224 93,364 78.58 19,974,463 4.34%-30%-36%
Palmer 12,157 283,946,000 896,242,200 23,357 73,722 82.79 17,104,432 4.99%-38%-50%
Paxton 4,854 175,630,000 450,419,600 36,183 92,793 94.45 9,166,651 4.93%-4%-36%
Peabody 52,044 1,512,479,000 6,526,419,100 29,062 125,402 62.51 96,684,607 4.00%-23%-14%G
Pelham 1,319 44,893,000 180,375,200 34,036 136,751 94.52 3,570,248 7.52%-10%-6%
Pembroke 18,097 643,143,000 2,383,250,400 35,539 131,693 86.75 34,970,197 4.72%-6%-10%
Pepperell 11,876 393,994,000 1,138,423,200 33,176 95,859 93.87 17,567,197 4.19%-12%-34%
Peru842 15,291,000 89,124,800 18,160 105,849 92.16 1,575,192 9.49%-52%-28%
Petersham 1,244 33,521,000 151,416,500 26,946 121,717 88.45 2,511,470 6.63%-28%-17%
Phillipston 1,707 41,027,000 190,957,600 24,035 111,867 94.02 2,909,926 6.67%-36%-23%
Pittsfield 44,057 1,035,070,000 3,452,075,400 23,494 78,355 64.19 73,514,528 4.56%-38%-46%G
Plainfield650 12,746,000 87,121,300 19,609 134,033 82.11 1,479,909 9.53%-48%-8%
Plainville 8,825 328,379,000 1,227,709,400 37,210 139,117 71.07 18,488,706 4.00%-1%-5%
Plymouth 57,826 1,799,011,000 8,960,909,400 31,111 154,963 78.80 138,443,888 6.06%-17%6%
Plympton 2,859 99,584,000 508,346,600 34,832 177,806 70.20 8,101,730 5.71%-8%22%
Princeton 3,436 170,313,000 459,644,500 49,567 133,773 95.73 7,590,735 4.27%32%-8%
Provincetown 2,966 122,210,000 2,588,786,400 41,204 872,821 82.83 18,155,112 12.30%9%498%
Quincy 93,494 2,813,552,000 11,574,140,000 30,093 123,796 69.83 197,589,133 4.90%-20%-15%G
Randolph 33,456 833,470,000 2,778,259,700 24,912 83,042 76.84 54,704,242 5.04%-34%-43%
Raynham 13,554 476,808,000 1,862,199,900 35,178 137,391 62.46 32,144,459 4.21%-7%-6%
Reading 25,327 1,241,500,000 4,027,651,700 49,019 159,026 91.44 58,794,675 4.33%30%9%
Rehoboth 11,837 452,522,000 1,581,077,700 38,229 133,571 91.48 19,549,595 3.95%2%-9%
Revere 53,756 1,083,734,000 4,135,457,600 20,160 76,930 74.27 72,492,427 4.97%-46%-47%G
Richmond 1,453 110,491,000 471,800,300 76,043 324,708 93.67 4,472,422 3.79%102%122%
Rochester 5,381 194,556,000 849,130,600 36,156 157,802 86.99 11,446,964 5.12%-4%8%
Rockland 17,632 465,325,000 1,738,672,800 26,391 98,609 79.98 32,126,162 5.52%-30%-32%
Rockport 7,131 289,019,000 1,812,691,400 40,530 254,199 93.99 19,841,034 6.45%8%74%
Rowe392 10,212,000 275,867,200 26,051 703,743 8.58 3,421,283 2.87%-31%382%
Rowley 6,031 248,762,000 896,934,500 41,247 148,721 86.21 13,042,003 4.52%10%2%
Royalston 1,263 29,243,000 121,315,500 23,154 96,053 93.68 1,570,217 5.03%-39%-34%
Russell 1,789 41,827,000 144,138,700 23,380 80,569 85.65 2,668,480 5.46%-38%-45%
Rutland 8,256 276,876,000 765,014,800 33,536 92,662 94.78 12,936,744 4.43%-11%-37%
Salem 42,544 1,134,289,000 4,232,985,800 26,662 99,497 73.13 79,058,306 5.10%-29%-32%G
Salisbury 8,580 222,578,000 1,438,390,300 25,941 167,645 81.32 17,418,491 6.36%-31%15%
Sandisfield920 18,411,000 226,036,300 20,012 245,692 90.07 2,809,732 13.75%-47%68%
Sandwich 20,589 736,716,000 3,811,136,400 35,782 185,105 87.49 54,592,699 6.48%-5%27%
Saugus 27,735 828,125,000 3,766,040,400 29,858 135,787 61.23 58,232,350 4.31%-21%-7%C
Savoy683 15,625,000 66,024,800 22,877 96,669 93.20 1,034,448 6.17%-39%-34%
Scituate 18,297 967,850,000 4,103,737,600 52,897 224,285 95.46 51,641,474 5.09%40%54%
Seekonk 14,366 482,286,000 2,074,658,800 33,571 144,415 60.04 34,560,664 4.30%-11%-1%
Sharon 18,027 1,056,713,000 2,895,867,400 58,618 160,641 92.90 60,056,129 5.28%56%10%
Sheffield 3,225 91,017,000 672,027,800 28,222 208,381 85.45 8,776,004 8.24%-25%43%
Shelburne 1,893 34,258,577 238,955,100 18,098 126,231 77.91 3,194,446 7.26%-52%-14%
Sherborn 4,239 757,718,000 1,153,727,900 178,749 272,170 95.27 22,805,119 2.87%375%86%
Shirley 7,613 182,129,000 556,300,200 23,923 73,072 89.42 9,858,905 4.84%-36%-50%
Shrewsbury 36,309 1,751,632,000 4,974,698,800 48,242 137,010 87.04 65,297,962 3.24%28%-6%
Shutesbury 1,773 41,912,000 216,229,500 23,639 121,957 97.03 4,557,258 10.55%-37%-16%
Somerset 18,290 496,157,000 2,214,243,800 27,127 121,063 65.95 38,198,362 5.08%-28%-17%
Somerville 78,804 2,479,581,000 10,446,575,400 31,465 132,564 73.59 122,165,461 3.63%-16%-9%C
South Hadley 17,740 495,580,000 1,482,316,700 27,936 83,558 90.66 24,075,506 4.40%-26%-43%
Southampton 5,984 215,958,000 676,154,500 36,089 112,994 93.79 10,282,152 4.47%-4%-23%
Southborough 9,896 967,501,000 2,275,902,400 97,767 229,982 81.32 35,966,237 3.02%160%58%
Southbridge 16,793 307,982,000 953,583,100 18,340 56,785 76.41 18,421,552 4.57%-51%-61%
Southwick 9,634 314,127,000 1,006,180,000 32,606 104,441 88.31 16,643,746 4.68%-13%-28%
Spencer 11,766 284,910,000 971,709,400 24,215 82,586 86.76 12,610,151 3.84%-36%-43%
Springfield 153,703 2,109,884,000 7,077,664,000 13,727 46,048 56.73 176,111,383 4.74%-64%-68%G
Sterling 7,894 333,298,000 990,201,200 42,222 125,437 86.10 16,296,692 4.21%12%-14%
Stockbridge 1,963 63,535,000 827,768,800 32,366 421,686 89.62 7,369,062 10.39%-14%189%
Stoneham 21,734 820,344,000 3,164,899,700 37,745 145,620 82.45 44,639,678 4.49%0%0%
Stoughton 28,106 827,061,000 3,210,961,200 29,426 114,245 68.82 56,738,873 4.72%-22%-22%
Stow 6,916 456,327,000 1,223,186,500 65,981 176,863 90.93 23,115,073 4.61%75%21%
Sturbridge 9,407 364,464,000 1,138,346,300 38,744 121,011 81.11 21,402,110 4.76%3%-17%
Sudbury 18,367 1,901,458,000 4,154,472,500 103,526 226,192 91.10 73,549,580 3.52%175%55%
Sunderland 3,690 90,956,000 351,627,700 24,649 95,292 89.44 4,837,859 4.76%-35%-35%
Sutton 9,133 419,062,000 1,234,142,300 45,884 135,130 88.07 20,132,063 4.23%22%-7%
Swampscott 13,951 983,146,000 2,380,319,800 70,471 170,620 88.21 45,631,905 4.09%87%17%
Swansea 16,079 457,026,000 1,954,736,100 28,424 121,571 73.70 28,436,470 4.59%-25%-17%
Taunton 56,069 1,282,495,000 4,620,384,400 22,874 82,405 61.72 84,598,416 4.07%-39%-44%G
Templeton 8,134 182,858,000 571,482,700 22,481 70,259 88.62 9,199,203 4.46%-40%-52%
Tewksbury 30,107 1,050,907,000 3,979,613,200 34,906 132,182 72.73 71,444,252 4.94%-7%-9%
Tisbury 4,108 84,054,723 2,627,842,800 20,461 639,689 88.84 21,598,455 22.83%-46%338%
Tolland489 10,385,000 187,789,200 21,237 384,027 91.40 1,283,600 11.30%-44%163%
Topsfield 6,388 416,939,000 1,227,689,500 65,269 192,187 92.37 19,990,263 4.43%73%32%
Townsend 9,194 273,429,000 784,187,600 29,740 85,293 90.53 14,967,395 4.96%-21%-42%
Truro 2,011 70,425,000 2,128,228,900 35,020 1,058,294 94.21 13,446,423 17.99%-7%625%
Tyngsborough 12,054 461,454,000 1,414,054,300 38,282 117,310 86.86 23,510,428 4.43%2%-20%
Tyringham326 5,898,000 193,652,900 18,092 594,027 92.42 1,265,081 19.82%-52%307%
Upton 7,668 339,233,000 987,457,600 44,240 128,776 93.94 16,706,530 4.63%17%-12%
Uxbridge 13,647 444,404,000 1,443,118,800 32,564 105,746 84.89 25,122,304 4.80%-14%-28%
Wakefield 26,080 1,041,062,000 4,105,702,600 39,918 157,427 73.58 62,400,320 4.41%6%8%
Wales 1,875 39,538,000 166,569,500 21,087 88,837 91.39 2,778,170 6.42%-44%-39%
Walpole 24,818 1,146,776,000 3,918,309,500 46,207 157,882 82.64 62,171,235 4.48%23%8%
Waltham 62,227 1,992,543,000 9,539,477,600 32,021 153,301 40.08 163,000,697 3.28%-15%5%C
Ware 9,844 217,999,000 729,348,600 22,145 74,091 84.38 13,371,009 5.18%-41%-49%
Wareham 22,384 483,025,000 3,242,971,300 21,579 144,879 82.11 34,965,120 5.94%-43%-1%
Warren 5,168 91,241,000 317,967,900 17,655 61,526 85.61 5,947,732 5.58%-53%-58%
Warwick774 14,775,000 80,977,300 19,089 104,622 94.95 1,530,341 9.83%-49%-28%
Washington538 13,134,000 80,744,000 24,413 150,082 95.26 1,041,504 7.55%-35%3%
Watertown 32,996 1,337,041,000 5,632,812,800 40,521 170,712 67.19 86,708,897 4.36%8%17%C
Wayland 13,444 1,942,713,000 3,174,625,500 144,504 236,137 94.90 59,586,292 2.91%284%62%
Webster 16,811 391,700,000 1,433,490,800 23,300 85,271 78.84 21,319,349 4.29%-38%-42%
Wellesley 29,090 4,505,007,000 10,212,968,600 154,864 351,082 87.76 120,083,117 2.34%311%140%
Wellfleet 2,733 97,323,000 2,315,999,400 35,610 847,420 95.39 14,689,894 14.40%-5%480%
Wendell868 18,028,000 94,635,600 20,770 109,027 81.75 1,747,133 7.92%-45%-25%
Wenham 5,055 324,315,000 713,636,100 64,157 141,174 96.36 12,872,680 3.82%70%-3%
West Boylston 7,901 236,548,000 870,068,600 29,939 110,121 78.38 15,282,416 5.06%-20%-25%
West Bridgewater 6,983 221,415,000 996,335,700 31,708 142,680 56.84 21,539,808 5.53%-16%-2%
West Brookfield 3,759 115,411,000 354,767,800 30,703 94,378 91.34 5,043,580 3.99%-18%-35%
West Newbury 4,437 263,616,000 804,289,500 59,413 181,269 97.07 12,143,339 4.47%58%24%
West Springfield 28,684 737,110,000 2,654,054,200 25,698 92,527 53.99 58,010,181 4.25%-32%-37%
West Stockbridge 1,288 43,372,000 380,910,500 33,674 295,738 93.24 4,387,186 9.43%-11%103%
West Tisbury 2,874 74,357,000 2,472,763,000 25,872 860,391 95.38 13,663,892 17.53%-31%489%
Westborough 18,630 977,338,000 3,486,951,200 52,460 187,169 64.51 63,887,161 4.22%39%28%
Westfield 41,301 1,007,226,000 3,076,262,300 24,387 74,484 72.33 65,381,547 4.69%-35%-49%G
Westford 23,265 1,250,333,000 4,111,703,000 53,743 176,733 84.68 67,843,888 4.59%43%21%
Westhampton 1,603 50,891,000 219,564,300 31,747 136,971 94.71 3,943,168 7.34%-16%-6%
Westminster 7,404 262,434,000 856,074,400 35,445 115,623 81.44 15,787,240 4.90%-6%-21%
Weston 11,853 3,213,432,000 5,594,429,400 271,107 471,984 95.37 68,920,999 2.05%620%223%
Westport 15,700 534,861,000 3,052,146,400 34,068 194,404 92.52 23,327,474 4.04%-10%33%
Westwood 14,876 1,510,214,000 3,698,071,400 101,520 248,593 78.71 61,991,050 3.23%170%70%
Weymouth 55,419 1,674,804,000 6,202,696,700 30,221 111,924 76.04 88,967,067 4.04%-20%-23%
Whately 1,505 33,869,000 260,658,200 22,504 173,195 75.00 4,009,397 8.88%-40%19%
Whitman 14,696 401,688,000 1,328,007,600 27,333 90,365 90.10 20,535,596 4.61%-27%-38%
Wilbraham 14,477 601,848,000 1,658,972,800 41,573 114,594 88.45 33,341,412 4.90%10%-22%
Williamsburg 2,466 59,542,848 324,336,900 24,146 131,523 91.45 5,455,871 8.38%-36%-10%
Williamstown 7,599 232,223,000 1,044,563,700 30,560 137,461 89.25 14,971,663 5.75%-19%-6%
Wilmington 23,147 875,584,000 3,771,818,200 37,827 162,951 58.67 69,363,100 4.65%0%12%
Winchendon 10,542 209,331,000 661,966,200 19,857 62,793 89.84 10,303,121 4.42%-47%-57%
Winchester 22,079 2,008,653,000 6,044,138,800 90,976 273,751 95.26 74,348,323 3.53%142%87%
Windsor903 21,819,000 114,955,700 24,163 127,304 93.76 1,484,807 6.38%-36%-13%
Winthrop 18,111 530,986,000 1,716,742,400 29,318 94,790 92.99 26,381,265 4.62%-22%-35%
Woburn 39,083 1,363,970,000 6,189,092,800 34,899 158,358 47.28 92,699,572 3.21%-7%8%
Worcester 182,544 3,610,716,000 11,615,944,200 19,780 63,634 60.85 261,878,340 4.41%-47%-56%G
Worthington 1,167 37,652,000 164,406,000 32,264 140,879 92.71 2,331,271 5.74%-14%-4%
Wrentham 11,268 507,151,000 1,832,199,200 45,008 162,602 76.34 28,342,751 4.27%20%11%
Yarmouth 23,651 635,653,000 5,463,786,300 26,876 231,017 89.99 53,339,089 7.55%-29%58%
Statewide 6,692,824 252,039,938,602 977,191,967,900 37,658 146,006 14,554,077,347

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    2d Suffolk and Middlesex District